which we need to consider – not all strategies have equal impact, or the same Although empirical evidence suggests that early life stress is associated with reduced cognitive flexibility in children and adolescents [41, 44], our data indicate that ELA might not influence all aspects of cognitive flexibility in adults. Descriptors: Emotion, Regulation, Suppression, Reappraisal Emotions represent the “wisdom of the ages” ~Lazarus, 1991, p. Thus, our data suggest that both suppression and ACEs appear to be associated with greater perceived stress. Expressive suppression is a concept "based on individuals' emotion knowledge, which includes knowledge about the causes of emotion, about their bodily sensations and expressive behavior, and about the possible means of modifying them" In other words, expressive suppression … This finding further highlights that the impact of ACEs accumulates with increasing exposure to different types of adversities [3, 63]. Students were asked to participate in a study. Suppression Written consent was obtained from all participants in the study. We have more control over our emotions than we think, we just need to act beforehand. Gross’s process model of emotion regulation suggests that emotion regulation begins after the identification of an emotion as being helpful or harmful to a goal [16]. I cover everything from neuroscience to the latest exercises and tools to prevent mental distress and boost mental health. Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is a web interface that allows researchers to recruit participants and conduct studies online. In view of the fact that cumulative trauma in early development is associated with higher levels of psychopathology in adulthood (e.g., substance abuse [3]), prevention programs that focus on the improving emotion regulation skills in children and young adults may be able to counter some of the negative effects of early adversity [66]. 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This finding provides support for the notion that that use of expressive suppression as an emotion regulation strategy intensifies the effect of ELA on psychological outcomes [65]. Further, we used the Johnson-Neyman technique [61] with uncentered scores, which indicates that individuals who reported cognitive reappraisal scores below 19.7 (M = 29.90) showed no conditional effect of ACEs on perceived stress. Citation: Kalia V, Knauft K (2020) Emotion regulation strategies modulate the effect of adverse childhood experiences on perceived chronic stress with implications for cognitive flexibility. Participants responded to a brief description of the study and were recruited until the maximum number approved by the institutional review board was reached. In the second model, we observed the same the relationships between ACEs, perceived chronic stress, and CFI-Control as the first model. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) is a 10-item self-report measure of two emotion regulation strategies; cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. Emotion suppression, for example, consists of “inhibiting the outward signs of your inner feelings.” Professionals in high-stress jobs (doctors, police, military) are often taught that emotional suppression is an effective strategy for emotional regulation, in spite of plentiful research suggesting otherwise. Gross [18] has identified two key strategies–expressive suppression and cognitive reappraisal. To initiate a study using MTurk, researchers must create an account with adequate funds to cover participant costs and any additional fees charged by Amazon. EMOTION REGULATION QUESTIONNAIRE (ERQ) Reference: Gross, J.J., & John, O.P. It is important to note that for those individuals who had very high number of ACEs the interactive effect of cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression on perceived chronic stress was muted (see Figs 2 and 3). These individuals showed consistently high perceived stress regardless of the number of ACEs. process and changes how we think about a situation beforehand. No, Is the Subject Area "Mechanical stress" applicable to this article? No, Is the Subject Area "Child abuse" applicable to this article? There are many different emotion regulation strategies and some are more helpful than others. Personality includes individual differences in the strategies that people tend to use when … This analytic strategy would ultimately help identify the degree to which the indirect effect of early adversity on cognitive flexibility through chronic stress is altered depending on emotion regulation strategy use. The Emotion Regulation Scale is designed to measure the tendency to regulate emotions by cognitive reappraisal and/or expressive suppression. This is a top-down process. Thus, it is possible that CFI-Control is more likely to be associated with outcomes than CFI-Alternatives. Our work adds to support to the notion that habitual use of expressive suppression is associated with negative psychological outcomes [20]. Therefore, it is entirely possible that individuals who are living in economic deprivation are also experiencing increased feelings of helplessness which can be exhibited as reduced control over challenging circumstances. The relationship between ACEs and PSS scores was significant at one standard deviation above, B = 1.04, t(403) = 7.77, p < .001, and below the mean of cognitive reappraisal scores, B = 0.54, t(403) = 3.60, p < .001, as well as at the mean, B = 0.79, t(403) = 8.18, p < .001 (See Fig 2). All relevant variables were centered prior to analyses. Yet, the putative implications of ELA on cognitive and emotional regulatory capacities, such as cognitive flexibility, that are implicated in activity in the pFC are understudied [1]. For instance, participant age was positively associated with CFI-Control and negatively associated with perceived stress and habitual use of suppression as a strategy to regulate emotions. However, it is also possible that the inflexible appraisal of stressors we observe in participants with high ACEs scores is due to enhanced development of vigilance to threats in the environment [7]. Since ACEs are a factor that cannot be modified, future research should consider that individuals with very high number of ACEs might be potential targets for treatments aimed at improving emotion regulation skills. Consequently, higher ACE scores indicate greater exposure to early adversity (α = 0.88). So, we also examined if individual differences in emotion regulation strategies would modulate the relationship between ACEs and chronic stress. They also reported experiencing less disgust than Group 2. Early life adversity (ELA; i.e., exposure to environmental experiences that deviate from normative stimulation that fosters brain development) has also been implicated in increased risk for heart disease and coronary distress [3, 4]. Instead of conceptualizing emotions as psychological states ; In the last month, how often have you found that you could not cope with all the things you had to do?). Finally, we did not randomize the order in which the questionnaires were presented. Higher scores indicated greater cognitive flexibility (Alternatives: α = 0.91; Control: α = 0.89). We also sought to determine whether perceived chronic stress mediated the relationship between ELA and cognitive flexibility. According to Gross (1987), emotional regulation may take two forms: Cognitive reappraisal. The way you regulate your emotions may depend on your personality (and culture, age, gender). Reappraisal, on the other hand, requires that the individual alter or update the way they think about or frame an event to enhance or reduce its emotional impact [25]. However, stress is a subjective experience, and emotion regulation strategies can attenuate the stress response. Yes Others turn to alcohol or drugs to get rid of painful emotions. That is, higher number of ACEs predicted lower scores on CFI-Control. mark is not a measure of your worth or abilities. First, expressive suppression is a response-focused strategy that emerges once the emotional event is underway and requires constant monitoring resources to maintain. The relationship between ACEs and PSS scores was significant at one standard deviation above, B = 0.49, t(403) = 3.76, p < .001, and below the mean of expressive suppression scores, B = 0.96, t(403) = 5.46, p < .001, as well as at the mean, B = 0.72, t(403) = 6.73, p < .001 (See Fig 3). One proposed explanation for the association between ELA and physical morbidity in adulthood is the habitual deployment of maladaptive coping strategies (e.g., drug use) in response to stressful events [5]. : such as in the example above with the person cutting you off in traffic). Items on the scale involve two distinct aspects of emotional life, namely: emotional experience and emotional expression. How would you use this technique? Appraisal theories of emotion regulation raise the possibility that individual differences in emotion regulation processes could emerge as a key moderator of the impact of ELA on adult outcomes [43]. feeling sad/frustrated/angry; heart racing; shouting). broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Emotional regulation is defined as an attempt to influence emotion. suppression n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. The frontal regions of your brain have the ability to calm the limbic structures (emotional structures), such as the amygdala. Emotion, 3, 48-67. (2003). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5FTiSR2KKUI&t=24s, Das Flow-Erlebnis: Das Gefühl des völligen Aufgehens in einer Tätigkeit, Wie Achtsamkeit und Meditation Dein Gehirn verändern können, Wie sich Dankbarkeit auf unser Wohlbefinden auswirkt. The results suggest that suppressing emotions has a physiological consequence. In contrast to its debilitating effect on cognitive abilities [41], some researchers have proposed that exposure to ELA might hasten emotion learning in development in some individuals [7]. Second, expressive suppression can have a degrading effect on the individual’s relationships and social functioning by negatively impacting contingent responsiveness in social interactions [69]. Consists of 10 items, six that assess habitual use of cognitive reappraisal (e.g., When I want to feel more positive emotion such as joy or amusement I change what I’m thinking about; α = .87), and four items assessing habitual use of expressive suppression (e.g., When I am feeling positive emotions, I am careful not to express them; α = .81). Concordant with previous reports, our data demonstrate a dosage effect [3], such that the higher the number of ACEs a person reported the more likely they were to report feeling stressed and that they could not cope with challenges. Our data are consistent with prior work showing that, in individuals who have experienced very high levels of early adversity, psychological functioning may be determined by factors other than emotion regulation [66]. To characterize the relationships between these variables, we conducted two moderated mediation models with CFI-Control as the key outcome variable, ACEs as the primary predictor variable, and perceived chronic stress serving as a mediator. itself. Considering that this relationship remains significant after accounting for variance explained by perceived stress levels, participant age, and education levels, our study highlights the significance of ACEs in predicting inflexibility. However, the buffering effect of cognitive reappraisal becomes less robust with the greater number of ACEs an individual reported. Therefore, we conducted two separate sets of regression analyses with each emotion regulation strategy, ACEs and their interaction as predictor variables and perceived stress as the dependent variable. Expressive suppression is a strategy in which an individual attempts to conceal or inhibit emotional expressions [18]. Yet, the impact of ACEs on psychological variables, such as emotion regulation and cognitive flexibility, are understudied. Emotional Suppression: Physiology, Self-Report, and Expressive Behavior James 1. Positive emotions leave us feeling in a good mood – they support our well-being – such : less heart racing going These early stressors are more likely to be perceived as uncontrollable and hence more debilitating [27]. All variables were normally distributed (skew coefficient < |1|; kurtosis coefficient < |2|). Path a coefficients are displayed for high reappraisal (1 SD above the mean), average reappraisal (mean), and low reappraisal (1 SD below the mean). 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